|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2013
|Share-based Compensation [Abstract]|
We have granted stock, restricted stock, phantom stock and options to purchase common stock to employees, consultants and outside directors under the Cheniere Energy, Inc. Amended and Restated 1997 Stock Option Plan (the "1997 Plan"), Amended and Restated 2003 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended (the "2003 Plan"), and 2011 Incentive Plan, as amended (the "2011 Plan"). We recognize our share-based payments to employees in the consolidated financial statements based on their fair values at the date of grant. The calculated fair value is recognized as expense (net of any capitalization) over the requisite service period, net of estimated forfeitures, using the straight-line or accelerated recognition methods.
The 1997 Plan provides for the issuance of stock options to purchase up to 5.0 million shares of our common stock, all of which have been granted. Non-qualified stock options were granted to employees, contract service providers and outside directors. The 2003 Plan and 2011 Plan provide for the issuance of 21.0 million shares and 35.0 million shares, respectively, of our common stock that may be in the form of non-qualified stock options, incentive stock options, purchased stock, restricted (non-vested) stock, bonus (unrestricted) stock, stock appreciation rights, phantom stock and other share-based performance awards deemed by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors (the "Compensation Committee") to be consistent with the purposes of the 2003 Plan and 2011 Plan.
For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, the total share-based compensation expense recognized in our net loss (net of capitalization) was $271.4 million, $58.7 million and $26.4 million, respectively, and for the same periods we capitalized as part of the cost of capital assets $12.5 million, $2.4 million and zero, respectively, of share-based compensation cost. The effect of a change in estimated forfeitures is recognized through a cumulative adjustment included in share-based compensation cost in the period of change in estimate. We consider many factors when estimating expected forfeitures, including types of awards, employee class and historical experience. For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, the cumulative adjustment recognized in our compensation expense was zero, zero and $0.6 million, respectively.
The total unrecognized compensation cost at December 31, 2013 relating to non-vested share-based compensation arrangements granted under the 1997 Plan, the 2003 Plan and the 2011 Plan was $229.8 million. That cost is expected to be recognized over 4.6 years, with a weighted average period of 3.2 years.
We have disclosed the deferred tax benefit realized from share-based compensation exercised during the annual period in Note 13—"Income Taxes". A valuation allowance equal to the deferred tax asset has been established due to the uncertainty of realizing the tax benefits related to this deferred tax asset.
For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, we issued 18,860,000 shares, 10,293,000 shares and 2,565,000 shares, respectively, of restricted stock awards to our employees, executives, directors and a consultant. The awards have been issued with vestings based on service periods (one, three or four-year service periods), market conditions and performance conditions. Grants of restricted stock to employees and directors based on service periods and performance conditions are measured at the closing quoted market price of Cheniere's common stock on the grant date. Grants to employees and consultants based on market conditions are measured using valuations based on Monte Carlo simulations and on quoted market prices at the end of each reporting period, respectively. To calculate the Monte Carlo simulation, we must consider certain variables. Volatility factors are based on the historical and implied volatilities of Cheniere's common stock over the expected lives as estimated on the grant date. The dividend yield is the expected annual dividend yield over the expected life, expressed as a percentage of the stock price on the grant date. Estimates of fair value may not accurately predict the value ultimately realized by employees who receive stock-based incentive awards, and the ultimate value may not be indicative of the reasonableness of the original estimates of fair value made by Cheniere. The amortization of the value of restricted stock grants is accounted for as a charge to compensation expense or capitalized with a corresponding increase to additional paid-in-capital over the requisite service period. For the market awards granted in 2013, we used the following variables in our Monte Carlo simulations:
In July 2012, we met the criteria to determine the long-term commercial bonus pool that was established by the Compensation Committee in the 2011-2013 Bonus Plan in relation to Trains 1 and 2 of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project. In August 2012, the Compensation Committee approved a long-term commercial bonus pool, which consisted of approximately $60 million in cash awards and 10 million restricted shares of common stock to be issued under the 2011 Plan. The first restricted stock award installment vested in August 2012 when Sabine Pass Liquefaction issued its full notice to proceed ("NTP") to Bechtel Oil, Gas and Chemicals, Inc. ("Bechtel") under the lump sum turnkey agreement with respect to Trains 1 and 2 of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project. The restricted stock awards vest in five installments as follows:
In general, employees must be employed at the time of each vesting to receive the awards or will otherwise forfeit such awards. Vesting and payment of the awards would accelerate in full upon (i) termination of employment by the Company without "Cause" or, solely in the case of executive officers, termination of employment by the employee for "Good Reason" (each as defined in the 2003 Plan), (ii) the employee's death or disability, or (iii) the occurrence of a change of control.
On December 12, 2012, pursuant to the 2011-2013 Bonus Plan, the Compensation Committee approved a Long-Term Bonus Pool for 2012 for all employees of the Company consisting of a total of 18 million shares of restricted stock. The Long-Term Commercial Bonus Awards for Trains 3 and 4 of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project were granted to employees in February 2013 under the 2003 Plan and 2011 Plan. A portion of each employee's Long-Term Commercial Bonus Award for Trains 3 and 4 of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project was granted as a milestone award ("Milestone Award"), with vesting of the Milestone Award conditional on certain performance milestones relating to financing and constructing Trains 3 and 4 of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project, and a portion was granted as a stock price award ("Stock Price Award"), with vesting of the Stock Price Award conditional on the achievement of minimum average Company stock price hurdles.
On May 22, 2013, the $25 stock price hurdle was achieved. Following certification by a subcommittee of the Compensation Committee, 50% of the Stock Price Awards vested. On December 6, 2013, the $35 stock price hurdle was achieved. Following certification by a subcommittee of the Compensation Committee, the remaining 50% of the Stock Price Awards vested.
On May 28, 2013, the first performance milestone was achieved when Sabine Pass Liquefaction closed the financing for, and issued notice to proceed with construction under, the EPC Contract (Trains 3 and 4), described in Note 16—"Commitment and Contingencies". Following certification of the achievement of the performance milestone by a subcommittee of the Compensation Committee, 30% of the Milestone Awards vested. The remaining Milestone Awards will vest based on the achievement of the following performance milestones:
The table below provides a summary of the status of our restricted stock under the 2003 Plan and 2011 Plan as of December 31, 2013 (in thousands except for per share information):
The weighted average grant date fair values per share of restricted stock granted during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 were $21.89, $14.06, and $7.72, respectively. The total grant date fair value per share of shares vested during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 were $19.40, $12.76 and $7.26, respectively.
On February 25, 2009, the Compensation Committee made phantom stock grants of 5,545,000 shares pursuant to the 2003 Plan to all Cheniere executives, designated employees and one consultant. On June 12, 2009, the Compensation Committee made additional phantom stock grants of 800,000 shares to our Chief Executive Officer pursuant to the approval from our stockholders to increase the maximum number of shares granted to any one individual under the 2003 Plan during a calendar year from 1.0 million shares to 3.0 million shares. The shares were awarded under a time based plan and a performance based plan. The time based plan included an aggregate of 1,565,000 shares of phantom stock and provided for a three-year graded vesting schedule. The shares awarded under the time based plan vested equally on each of December 15, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The performance based plan included an aggregate of 4,780,000 shares of phantom stock with each grant divided into three equal parts providing incentive compensation based on separate vesting terms. Vested shares of phantom stock were settled in cash or in shares of common stock, as determined by the Compensation Committee. In June 2009, we obtained approval from our stockholders to increase the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2003 Plan from 11.0 million common shares to 21.0 million shares of common stock, which provided the requisite shares of common stock needed to satisfy vested phantom stock. We transferred the fair valued compensation liability associated with these phantom stock grants into additional paid-in capital. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, fair values were calculated as of June 12, 2009 for the time and performance based plans. For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, a total of zero, zero and $12.2 million was recognized as compensation expense relating to the vesting of time and performance based phantom stock grants. There was no unrecognized compensation cost at December 31, 2013 relating to non-vested phantom stock.
For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, we issued zero shares, zero shares and 5,262,000 shares, respectively, of phantom stock awards to our executives and certain officers.
We estimate the fair value of stock options at the date of grant using a Black-Scholes valuation model. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury securities yield curve in effect at the time of grant. The expected term (estimated period of time outstanding) of stock options granted is based on the "simplified" method of estimating the expected term for "plain vanilla" stock options, and varies based on the vesting period and contractual term of the stock option. Expected volatility for stock options granted is based on an equally weighted average of the implied volatility of exchange traded stock options on our common stock expiring more than one year from the measurement date, and historical volatility of our common stock for a period equal to the stock option's expected life. We have not declared dividends on our common stock. We did not issue any options to purchase shares of our common stock during the year ended December 31, 2013.
The table below provides a summary of option activity under the 1997 Plan, 2003 Plan and 2011 Plan as of December 31, 2013:
The weighted average grant-date fair value of options granted during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 was zero. The total intrinsic value of options exercised during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 was $2.0 million, $0.7 million and zero, respectively.
We received $3.7 million, $0.8 million and zero proceeds from the exercise of stock options in the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
In 2005, we established a defined contribution pension plan ("401(k) Plan"). The 401(k) Plan allows eligible employees to contribute up to 100% of their compensation up to the IRS maximum. We match each employee's salary deferrals (contributions) up to six percent of compensation and may make additional contributions at our discretion. Effective January 1, 2007, employees are immediately vested in the contributions made by us. Our contributions to the 401(k) Plan were $2.3 million, $1.4 million and $1.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. We have made no discretionary contributions to the 401(k) Plan to date.
The entire disclosure for compensation-related costs for equity-based compensation, which may include disclosure of policies, compensation plan details, allocation of equity compensation, incentive distributions, equity-based arrangements to obtain goods and services, deferred compensation arrangements, employee stock ownership plan details and employee stock purchase plan details.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef